Generation of Computer

Generation of Computer: The history of computer starts from several decades ago and from then onwards it is being updated everyday. So this upgradation of a certain period is being considered as the generation. In every successive generation there has been a significant technological advancement leading to more compact, less expensive, but more powerful, efficient and robust computer. Till now we have five generations of computer as follows:

    1. First generation(Vacuum Tube)
      • Period: 1940-1956.
      • Technology used: Vacuum tube
      • Memory used: Magnetic drum
      • Language used: Machine language
      • Input unit: Punched card, paper tape.
      • Output unit: Printout.
      • Accuracy: Error Prone.
      • Power consumption: Massive.
      • Heat generation: Massive heat.
      Examples: UNIVAC, ENIAC
    2. Second generation(Transistor)
      • Period: 1956-1963.
      • Technology used: Transistor
      • Memory used: Magnetic Core.
      • Language used: Assembly Language
      • Input unit: Punched card, paper tape.
      • Output unit: Printout.
      • Accuracy: Less Error Prone compared to 1st generation.
      • Power consumption: Less power consumption as compared to 1st generation.
      • Heat generation: Less heat generation than 1st generation.
      Examples: IBM 7000, NCR 304, IBM 650, IBM 1401, ATLAS
    3. Third generation(Integrated Circuit)
      • Period: 1964-1971.
      • Technology used: Integrated Circuit
      • Memory used: Semiconductor Memories.
      • Language used: High level languages – COBOL, FORTRAN
      • Input unit: Keyboard.
      • Output unit: Monitor.
      • Accuracy: Almost error less.
      • Power consumption: Less power consumption as compared to 2nd generation.
      • Heat generation: Less heat generation than 2nd generation.
      Examples: IBM System/360, IBM 1130, UNIVAC 1107, Apollo Flight Computer
    4. Fourth generation(Microprocessor)
      • Period: 1972-2010.
      • Technology used: Microprocessor
      • Memory used: Semiconductor Memories.
      • Language used: High level languages – Python, Perl, Ruby, Java, C++ etc.
      • Input unit: Keyboard.
      • Output unit: Monitor.
      • Power consumption: Less power consumption as compared to 3rd generation.
      • Heat generation: Less heat generation than 3rd generation.
      Examples: Apple Macintosh, IBM PCs.
    5. Fifth generation(Artificial Intelligence)
      • Period: 2010-.
      • Technology used: ULSI Microprocessor
      • Memory used: Semiconductor Memories.
      • Language used: High level languages – Prolog, OPS5, Mercury etc.
      • Input unit: Keyboard.
      • Output unit: Monitor.
      • Power consumption: negligible power consumption.
      • Heat generation: negligible heat.
      Examples: Apple Macintosh, IBM PCs.
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